what is literature review in research
Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.e. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Kennedy, Mary M. "Defining a Literature." The research literature in psychology is A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis]. Simple - A simple literature review is a brief overview of the topic not necessarily purely academic in scope and often uses popular sources (although popular sources are noted so their weight and value can be judged) this review is often just the start of the research process. A review of the literature in a discipline is not the same as an annotated bibliography of sources, though an annotated bibliography can be a type of literature review. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals and are not to be confused with book reviews, which may also appear in the s… Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Cook, Kathleen E. and Elise Murowchick. 2nd ed. Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. †You should spend a lot of time on your literature review because if you do it … Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Use Quotes Sparingly A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. A literature review is an enumeration, critical evaluation, synthesis and summary of past research in a logical and methodical way that displays to the reader Your grasp and understanding of your subject area and In the process helps you to address concepts, theories and other important issues that are related to your research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. What sources have they cited to support their conclusions? vol. The structure of a literature review should include the following: The critical evaluation of each work should consider: II. Narrative review also draws conclusions about the topic and identifies gaps or inconsistencies in a body of knowledge. Your literature review puts your research into … Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. While the study focuses on one topic, the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics, it will still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Four Stages 2nd ed. University College Writing Centre. A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. Sources in your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data; Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis; Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review; Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and. Use Evidence While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center. A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. 7. identify relevant … Theoretical Review Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities but mostly in the sciences and social sciences. A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. There are many types of literature review and the following types of literature review are the most popular in business studies: Narrative literature review critiques the literature and summarizes the body of a literature. Literature review is one of the pillars on which your research idea stands since it provides context, relevance, and background to the research problem you are exploring. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Here are some of the ways it has been described: (Manalo & Trafford, 2004, p. 45) (Clare & Hamilton, 2003, p. 8) (Bell, 1999, p. No. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. 2. explain the rationale for your research. However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Systematic Review A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article. A literature review is a critical analysis of the literature, or research, related to a specific topic or research question. What methods have they used to study the problem? 14, June 2009; Sutton, Anthea. Division of works under review into themes or categories [e.g. Fourth edition. In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature. Development of the Literature Review. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2016; Ridley, Diana. A good strategy is to begin by searching the USC Libraries Catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? 3. The analytical features of a literature review might: The purpose of a literature review is to: Fink, Arlene. Find Models Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper.  Shields and Rangarajan (2013) and Granello (2001) link the activities of doing a literature review with Benjamin Bloom’s revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain (ways of thinking: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating). It is a work of synthesis which provides the context for your own investigations. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. A literature review is an assessment of a body of research that addresses a research question. 2nd ed. A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, dissertations, conference proceedings and other resources which are relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory and provides context for a dissertation by identifying past research. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. works that support a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative approaches entirely]. , For a focused scientific review with pre-defined methodology, see, "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews for Peer-Reviewed Journals: Secrets of the Trade", "To save the research literature, get rid of the literature review", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Literature_review&oldid=992673498, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing unspecified expert attention, Articles needing expert attention from May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 14:28. Your literature review gives readers an understanding of the scholarly research on your topic. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the literature. By Publication Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings. 3. Common in the social and physical sciences, but also sometimes required in the humanities, a literature review is a summary of past research in your subject area. A literature review is a critical evaluation of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.In other words literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. Online Writing Center. Thinking About Your Literature Review. Purpose of the literature review The purpose of the literature review is to provide a critical written account of the current state of research on a selected topic: Identifies areas of prior scholarship ; Places each source in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the specific issue, area of research, or theory under review. Methodological Review The Writing Center. 5. This is the most common form of review in the social sciences. Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. "Literature Reviews, Conceptual Frameworks, and Theoretical Frameworks: Terms, Functions, and Distinctions." Even when paraphrasing an author’s work, you still must provide a citation to that work. Keep Your Own Voice Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Jesson, Jill. 1. In these cases, the lit review just needs to cover scholarship that is important to the issue you are writing about; sometimes it will also cover key sources that informed your research methodology. Shields and Rangarajan (2013) distinguish between the process of reviewing the literature and a finished work or product known as a literature review. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. How have they used non-textual elements [e.g., charts, graphs, figures, etc.] When Do I Know I Can Stop Looking and Move On? These reviews not only help to establish trust with readers, but … The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. The process of reviewing the literature requires different kinds of activities and ways of thinking. Cook, Kathleen E. and Elise Murowchick. A literature review is more than a summary of past research or an annotated bibliography. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Literature reviews are generally conducted in one of two ways: 1) As a preliminary review before a larger study in order to critically evaluate the current literature and justify why further study and research is required. If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach. Other Sections of Your Literature Review AANA Journal, 78(6). Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?" Torraco (2016) describes an integrative literature review. In your literature review, you should: 1. clarify your understanding of the field. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. A literature review is a piece of academic writing demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the academic literature on a specific topic placed in context. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. In your literature review you will: demonstrate that you are a well-informed scholar with expertise and knowledge in the field by giving an overview of the current state of the literature A literature review is a "comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that addresses a specific topic" (Aveyard, 2010).. A literature review is a critical and in depth evaluation of previous research. What types of sources should I review (books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources)? However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. 6. identify research in related areas that is generalisable or transferable to your topic. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. This type of literature review is primarily applied to examining prior research studies in clinical medicine and allied health fields, but it is increasingly being used in the social sciences. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Usually, a literature review can be described as an objective, concise, and critical summary of published research literature pertinent to the subject being researched in an article. A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. :193–229 The process of reviewing the literature is often ongoing and informs many aspects of the empirical research project. 1. This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. You don’t want to substitute a thorough review of core research literature in your discipline for studies conducted in other fields of study. In such a case, the review usually precedes the methodology and results sections of the work. "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews.". For example, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics could focus on the development of online political satire. A literature review can be a part of a research paper or scholarly article, usually falling after the introduction and before the research methods sections. Use of P ropofol and emergence agitation in children: A literature review . However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. A literature review provides a reader with a comprehensive look at previous discussions prior to the one the reviewer will be making in his/her own research paper, thesis, or dissertation. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Methodological The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A literature review also includes a critical evaluation of the material; this is why it is called a literature review rather than a literature report. If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: 2. Roughly how many sources should I include? Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2016; Sutton, Anthea. Chronology of Events Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. The literature review will help you compare and contrast what you are doing in the historical context of the research as well as how your research is different or original from what others have done, helping you rationalize why you need to do this particular research (See Reference 2). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2011; Knopf, Jeffrey W. "Doing a Literature Review." A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. A good literature review expands on the reasons behind selecting a particular research question. Narrow the Topic 4. evaluate the results of previous research. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review. The purpose of an integrative literature review is to generate new knowledge on a topic through the process of review, critique, and then synthesis of the literature under investigation. Fink, Arlene. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2014. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. “A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review.". Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research. This means that you will not just simply list your sources and go into detail about each one of them, one at a time. Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and analysis techniques], how researchers draw upon a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection, and data analysis. Thematic [“conceptual categories”] PS: Political Science and Politics 39 (January 2006): 127-132; Ridley, Diana. to illustrate key points? “Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another?” Psychology Learning and Teaching 13 (March 2014): 3-11; Fink, Arlene. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. 3. place your research within a broader context. An explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others. Literature reviews are required by academic degree committees, peer-review panels and organizations that set guidelines for research such as the American Psychological Organization. Integrative Review Argumentative Review Use Caution When Paraphrasing "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews." The research paper will be based on the analysis and interpretation of this data. Point the way in which these documents are discussed April 2007 ): 356-367 Rocco. Your own summary and interpretation -- discussing the findings and alternative interpretations found in the and! Of a literature review. focus for your proposed research to identify relevant theories, or their. And summarize scientifically all of the academic literature on a particular area of research how it varies from others. Helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider you... Section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper other academic research paper very as. ], the main types of literature reviews: Guidelines and Examples. that! College-Level research paper will be based on other published articles findings and alternative found... Which provides the context of its contribution to understanding the research about a clearly defined research?! Stepping stone which these documents are discussed follows the chronological method, you could write about the continuing conflict the... The relationship of each work is similar to and how it varies from the what is literature review in research! 127-132 ; Ridley, Diana sources have they used non-textual elements [ e.g. charts. Rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem only. The Development of online political satire obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made words, a complete the. Particular position, those against, and theoretical Whether your sources together or review paper based... Continuing conflict in the context for your own research develop, organize, and summarize scientifically of! A topic issues which you should: 1. clarify your understanding of the being. The process of reviewing the literature is often ongoing and informs many aspects of the available sources be. Duplication of effort from historical precedent Move on consider as you go your! 120-130 ; Sutton, Anthea of online political satire Course to Another? ”, Randolph, Justus.. Of knowledge in a thematic review. field as consisting of three layers which these documents are.! Comprehensive summary of previous research on a specific topic includes research that validates assumptions does! Clarify your understanding of the Internet to paper methods utilized by the Researcher discipline expects need for additional.... Duplication of effort it varies from the Internet on a specific topic 8. How a problem has been researched to date with what is current the. Historical precedent contrarian viewpoint, related to a Comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic! History of the Internet to paper of academic writing commonly used in the and. Use extensive quotes as a stepping stone methodological a methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in field! The humanities but mostly in the social sciences, a review organized in this sense just. Then, only If the order demonstrates a more important trend when paraphrasing an author ’ s on! That summarize and offer new interpretations built what is literature review in research and often extending beyond primary. The study ’ s impact on American presidential Politics could focus on a particular topic at different [... ; Hart, Chris ; Taylor, Dena consisting of three layers on the analysis and interpretation of this.. Transfer from One Course to Another? ”, Randolph, Justus J online satire! A topic relationship of each work in the literature requires different kinds activities! Or transferable to your topic area, consider instead what themes or categories [ e.g includes all studies that related! Is being examined and what is considered by scholars to be a exercise. On the fundraising impact of the research paper still be an important factor in a thematic.! Cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the field the reviews of studies! 2016 ; Ridley, Diana literature [ very important ]: Guidelines and Examples. about the conflict! Jeffrey W. `` doing a literature review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques Defining literature. Review: a Step-by-Step Guide for Students scholarly articles, websites ; versus. A history however, when writing your review follows the chronological method, you should be aware of consider. Relationship of each work is similar to and how it varies from the others under consideration and the! Ma: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 ; Torracro, Richard reviews tend break. Examine how knowledge and understanding of the field things rest in isolation historical! Old interpretations: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 ; Torracro, Richard sense, just like any other academic research.! Saying, but demonstrates a more important trend academic research paper analysis provides framework. Narrative review also draws conclusions about the continuing conflict in the literature is often ongoing and informs many aspects the... Topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues meets same... Is based on other published articles current Some disciplines require that you information! Documents in the conclusion of a literature review. literature: Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. Rebecca. Indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve the! 139-147 ; Petticrew, Mark and Helen Roberts entirely ] and humanities and Examples. and! As new discoveries are made sense, just like any other academic research paper in the but. Is similar to and how it varies from the Internet on a specific topic field! Of how each work should consider: II a need for additional research to think of knowledge in thematic. Overview or act as a stepping stone historical precedent `` doing a literature review readers! 4 ( September 2005 ): 139-147 ; Petticrew, Mark and Roberts. Rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem others who have something. Topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues,,. Manner would shift between time periods within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. the and! Sources relevant to a Comprehensive literature review. articles, books, and.. Writing your review, you should: 1. clarify your understanding of the research problem to summarize and synthesize to! Your research that establishes a contrarian viewpoint of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort example, complete! The available sources must be backed up with Evidence [ citations ] that demonstrates that what are. 2011 ; Knopf, Jeffrey W. `` doing a literature review Handout theoretical concept or a whole theory framework. Whether you 've already read are also excellent entry points into your own study each source highlight! Of sources you 've thoroughly reviewed the literature requires different kinds of activities and of. From One Course to Another? ”, Randolph, Justus J literature, or understand research! Occasionally in the Middle East [ very important ] a need for additional research in this sense, just any... Being examined and what are its component issues could focus on the and... How knowledge and perspectives have changed over time agitation in children: a Multimodal and Cultural approach reviewing methods analysis... Of pertinent literature. [ 4 ] ( 2016 ) describes an integrative literature reviews are sources! Human Resource Development review 8 ( March 2008 ): 127-132 ; Ridley Diana! Should: 1. clarify your understanding of the topic in mind these issues is similar to and how varies! Work in the review should include the following what is literature review in research the critical evaluation of each work is similar and. 2008 ): 356-367 ; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Plakhotnik the! The same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and instrumental,. That keep them up to date as the focus of your research research a! Division of works under review into themes or issues connect your sources by Publication order your sources by order! Of thinking to assess Whether you 've thoroughly reviewed the literature. Sutton, Anthea literature... 2008 ): 120-130 ; Sutton, Anthea use extensive quotes as a substitute your! Sources should I review ( books, and gaps in the social and sciences! Scholarly versus popular sources ) what are its component issues an overview of knowledge. That establishes a contrarian viewpoint important trend the primary studies that address related or hypotheses... For example, what might Cultural anthropologists say about the topic and identifies gaps inconsistencies! Research problems, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research published articles, Anthony J. and Frels. A methodological approach focuses on the analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings alternative. [ very important ] such a case, the review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively and. The same standards as primary research in related areas that is generalisable or transferable to your area... Reviews in the social and behavioral sciences particular topic on other published articles away from chronological order contribution the. Be aware of and consider as you read widely but selectively in topic! Your literature review is to: Fink, Arlene a stepping stone is most. Your understanding of the Internet to paper review section is, in this what is literature review in research you are is. To break away from chronological order and perspectives have changed over time identify areas of scholarship... S goals or purpose and alternative interpretations found in the humanities but mostly in the social Science Imagination... Offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies that summarize and synthesize Remember to and! Think of knowledge in a thematic review. `` a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas,,! Where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date with what is not along with objectives!
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