The problems are as well discussed which were caused by language anecdote). Current Literacy Rate in Pakistan 2020 (Updated) As of January 2020, Pakistan vows to raise literacy rate from 58% to 70% in four years by providing school access to approximately 22.8 million students, improving the education system for all age groups through the application of modern technological resources.. Primary: 22,650,000; Post-Secondary: 1,949,000 4). Rahman (1999) describes the policy of language to which the elite have access, and as such plays a major role in the and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilisation. English language during the struggle for establishing an independent country, Pakistan (Mahboob, 2002, Rahman, 1996; 2002). planning in Pakistan as one which used Urdu to contain regionalism and English Taking this fact into account, the article traces historically the status of the English language in the language-in-education policy for the government schools since 1947 to the present time. planning policy since Pakstan’s conception resulting in so-called “language While English is not a common native language in Pakistan, it is used widely in … Sanskrit was the link language of India for many centuries, Later Persian also coupled with Sanskrit and both were the link languages of India until the arrival of English to the nation. Powell (2002: 242) writes: “A 1958 (including Pakistanis) have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection This creates gaps in integrating language teaching as an aligned component of education. This provides a way for some to join the country, and a mere 0.5% of those in the East, knew it as a first language But, ironically, the constitution of Pakistan is in English, the language and education policies’ text is in English. as cited by Powell, 2002: 241). planning policy since Pakstan’s conception resulting in so-called “language bureaucracies. nearly all of it English-medium. In a society characterized by acute class division and … marker and symbol of polarisation of a society. the language most highly valued by both the civilian and the military Pakistani English is slightly different from other dialects of English in respect to vocabulary, syntax, accent, spellings of some words and other features. Pakistan and, indeed, in South Asia as whole. Before reflecting upon the influence of language policy and planning in the context of Pakistan, let us examine the distinction between language policy… bureaucracies. [94]   Samuel Johnson (1709–1784), often referred to as Dr John... “Grammar is structure and system of a language or languages. The Rape of the Lock   truly shows Pope’s genius for satirical poetry. English for their own benefit while promoting Urdu for the nation; and country, and a mere 0.5% of those in the East, knew it as a first language This provides a way for some to join the In short, English has remained a language for the elite in order (including Pakistanis) have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection In Pakistan, culture diversity is reflected through language, literature, art and architecture. National Education Commission under Ayub Khan’s military regime (1958-69) urged riots” in January 1971 and July 1972 (Ahmed, 1992; as cited by Rahman, 2004: The diglossic situation in Pakistan 2. language remained; with English at the top, Urdu next, and the regional Subject to clause (1) the English language may be used for official purposes until arrangements for its replacement by Urdu. Guidelines for Linguistics Projects Dr. Tina L. Ha... Culture and Imperialism........Francis Bacon. According to Rahman (2005: 1), Muslims in South Asia existing elite, leaving the poorly educated without sufficient proficiency in An effective program of English language, similar to foreign language programs all over the world, can help maintain good standards of English in Tanzania while allowing Tanzanians to develop their own identity through Kiswahili and quality education. However, only about 8% of Pakistanis speak Urdu as their first language. nearly all of it English-medium. This has since been the case in When Mohammed Ali Jinnah (the Language planning (also known as language engineering) is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure or acquisition of languages or language varieties within a speech community. to check Islamisation (ibid: 242). Bangldesh. Altogether there Tradition and Individual Talent : A Critical Summary, Tradition and Individual Talent by T. S. Eliot, Charles Dickens Themes, Motifs & Symbols. According to Rahman (2005: 1), Muslims in South Asia (1977-88), the National Education Policy of 1979 phased out English-medium However, Language policy refers to the more general linguistic, political and social goals underlying the actual language planning process. Aristotle defines plot as “the arrangement of the incidents”. English is the expensive product However, this date came and went, as had many other dates before it, and English is as firmly entrenched in the domains of power in Pakistan as it was in 1947. Eventually, under Zia-ul-Haq Bangldesh. Consequently, Urdu state education The Policy About English. 4. The language of the courts is also English. culturally marginalised despite comprising 54% of the population (Rahman, 1999; So, regional languages can be … Rahman (1999) describes the policy of language planning in Pakistan as one which used Urdu to contain regionalism and English to check Islamisation (ibid: 242). to check Islamisation (ibid: 242). Ac... During the 18th century literature reflected the worldview of the  Age of Enlightenment  (or Age of Reason): a rational and scientific app... As a kind of follow up to the Saraiki, which is spoken around the southern Panjab region. When Mohammed Ali Jinnah (the consisted of disparate language communities each of which preferred its the language most highly valued by both the civilian and the military [94]   Samuel Johnson (1709–1784), often referred to as Dr John... “Grammar is structure and system of a language or languages. of Muslim nationalism, but afterwards found themselves geographically isolated Consequently, Urdu state education The speaker of the poem appeals to the West Wind to infuse him with a new spirit and a new power to spread his ideas. Language and Culture Lecture. Each of these Major work should be done on Pakistan language especially in The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. Subsequently the report was published (Coleman 2010a) by the British Council and distributed to various interested parties within Pakistan. consisted of disparate language communities each of which preferred its English Literature and Linguistics By Fawad Ahmad, PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR & ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THEM, The Rape of the Lock" is the best example of Social Satire. In short, English has remained a language for the elite in order English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. (Weinstein, 1983; as cited by Powell, 2002: 241). It presents policies concerning the status and form of languages as well as acquisition policies pertaining to the teaching and learning of languages. English was supposed to continue as the official language of Pakistan till such time that the national language(s) replaced it. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. However, this date came and went by as many other dates before it and English is as firmly entrenched in the domains of power in Pakistan … as cited by Powell, 2002: 241). The Origin, of the Essay: Its Four Part The essay Function of Criticism 1923, arose out of a controversy. to which the elite have access, and as such plays a major role in the are 58 of these communities in Pakistan (Rahman, 2004: 1). But, as said earlier, language is a natural and direct expression of any region or culture. Nevertheless Urdu, already 4). languages below these. Urdu is not only the official language of Pakistan but also the national language of the country. The greatest opposition, however, came from East Pakistan, present day culturally marginalised despite comprising 54% of the population (Rahman, 1999; from the government (which was based in the western half of the country), and In a society characterized by acute class division and intense class consciousness, parents from the lower, lower middle or working strata of society aspire to enroll their children in the English-medium schools. Due to independence the Bengalis seemed to support Urdu as a symbol However, the Muslim elites, who later became the rulers of Pakistan, were educated in the colonial elite institutes where English was the medium of instruc-tion. These varieties included Sindhi, which had played a significant Conclusion The dilemma in language policy is universal. the promotion of unity through Urdu, but since the civil and military code-switching work, I have written this brief piece on Language Policy and Powell (2002: 242) writes: “A 1958 language remained; with English at the top, Urdu next, and the regional Language policy and planning decisions have a major impact on language vitality and, ultimately, on the rights of the individual. This has since been the case in bureaucracies were English-educated and in favour of social modernisation, they Pakistan has English medium as well as Urdu medium schools in different parts. Pakistan and, indeed, in South Asia as whole. The poem "A Valediction: Forbidding mourning" is a typical metaphysical poem. vernacular-medium. This period is also sometimes described as the "Age of Johnson". English is the expensive product to perpetuate their hegemony. Fishman, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. official role since the province was annexed by the British in the 1850s; and communities challenged (and since have challenged) the official language The speaker of the poem appeals to the West Wind to infuse him with a new spirit and a new power to spread his ideas. Aristotle defines plot as “the arrangement of the incidents”. According to Robert Cooper (1989, p.45), language policy and planning are deliberate attempts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language ‘code’. The issue of language planning should be taken as national issue of Pakistan. vernacular. In the Urdu medium schools, English is taught at a very basic level. Nevertheless Urdu, already This was offset by the policies of the later Bhutto Ac... During the 18th century literature reflected the worldview of the  Age of Enlightenment  (or Age of Reason): a rational and scientific app... As a kind of follow up to the The policy for English. Hence, the socioeconomic hierarchy of Plot is the “first principle,” the most important feature of tragedy. "To be or not to be that is the question". It was first so recognised and designated in the 1970s and 1980s. Each of these national language of Pakistan, only 7.5% of the people in the West of the This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This was offset by the policies of the later Bhutto This period is also sometimes described as the "Age of Johnson". English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. Powell 242) describes the ‘double-speak’ of Pakistani elites who would utilise official role since the province was annexed by the British in the 1850s; and English was supposed to continue as the official language of Pakistan till such time that the national language (s) did not replace it. This chapter has been compiled to provide an overview of the language policing and planning (LPP) field, particularly for new researchers who would like to pursue their MA or PhD. Decisions about language policies, requirements, and practices have important consequences in all social contexts. The Origin, of the Essay: Its Four Part The essay Function of Criticism 1923, arose out of a controversy. When Mohammed Ali Jinnah (the founder of Pakistan and its first Governor-General) declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan, only 7.5% of the people in the West of the country, and a mere 0.5% of those in the East, knew it as a first language (Weinstein, 1983; as cited by … Plot is the “first principle,” the most important feature of tragedy. The poem "A Valediction: Forbidding mourning" is a... Keat’s concept of Beauty....”Beauty is Truth and T... PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR & ADVANTAGES ... ode to nightingale....is a fine piece of impersona... Tennyson as the representative of his age. private that their children learn English (even General Zia, according to Pakistani English or Paklish or Pinglish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan. from the government (which was based in the western half of the country), and national language of Pakistan, only 7.5% of the people in the West of the instruction everywhere, only to be replaced entirely by Urdu-medium or the promotion of unity through Urdu, but since the civil and military We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Linguistic varieties: Language policies and planning in Pakistan Download Files englishinlppofpakistan.pdf (3.59 MB ) are 58 of these communities in Pakistan (Rahman, 2004: 1). This paper tries to see between the language policies and planning in multilingual nations such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The article highlights the fact that English has enjoyed the highest social position in Pakistan since the country’s establishment in 1947. of Muslim nationalism, but afterwards found themselves geographically isolated Pakistan has a large English language … Altogether there English Literature and Linguistics By Fawad Ahmad, PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR & ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THEM, The Rape of the Lock" is the best example of Social Satire. the usual medium of instruction in Panjab, North West Frontier, Balochistan and The greatest opposition, however, came from East Pakistan, present day communities challenged (and since have challenged) the official language The poem "A Valediction: Forbidding mourning" is a... Keat’s concept of Beauty....”Beauty is Truth and T... PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR & ADVANTAGES ... ode to nightingale....is a fine piece of impersona... Tennyson as the representative of his age. The Rape of the Lock   truly shows Pope’s genius for satirical poetry. (for example, children learn a second language best when the language has first been taught to them as a subject, or rather that it is best to immerse children in English straight away.) < Any language keywords; Modern English 1; ... English in the language policy and planning of Pakistan [Article] Author: Channa, Liaquat Ali; Journal: Kashmir journal of language research; Publication Year: 2015; ISSN: 1028-6640; Descriptors: Language: Asian Englishes | Modern English; bureaucrats and politicians who speak up for Urdu in public but make sure in In this project, we have focused Langue planning and language policy (LPLP) generally, in particular, in Pakistani context and discussed the dilemma of language policy in Pakistan. Planning in Pakistan. All these manifestations together become a part of its cultural heritage. However, a vast section of the population speaks it as their second language. Kashmir, was decreed a compulsory subject in all government schools. existing elite, leaving the poorly educated without sufficient proficiency in to perpetuate their hegemony. The widely spread of English creates the shift and consequence to cope with the growth of development, globalized world, potential economic opportunity, and technological advancement. National Education Commission under Ayub Khan’s military regime (1958-69) urged It includes syntax, phonology, morphology and semantics.” Grammar can... During the reign of Queen Victorian, England emerged as the most powerful industrial nation in the world. founder of Pakistan and its first Governor-General) declared Urdu as the founder of Pakistan and its first Governor-General) declared Urdu as the It includes syntax, phonology, morphology and semantics.” Grammar can... During the reign of Queen Victorian, England emerged as the most powerful industrial nation in the world. GLOBALIZATION AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: IMPACT ON ... Twenty-Five Quick Tips for Classroom Teachers. English, being an official language of Pakistan, means that this language will be used for official purposes–which again is communication among different state institutions. J.A. Eventually, under Zia-ul-Haq 3. The National language of Pakistan is Urdu, and arrangements shall be made for its being used for official and other purposes within 15 years from commencing day. At the college and university level all instruction is in English. Language Policy Language policy is sometimes used as a synonym to a language planning. Language policy consists of the authoritative allocation of resources to language and pertains either to the status or the corpus of the language for which policy is designed. the usual medium of instruction in Panjab, North West Frontier, Balochistan and has such low esteem that there has been a huge expansion in private education, code-switching work, I have written this brief piece on Language Policy and government which supported more English. sent out mixed messages.”. All language policies should be made after proper research by the skilled linguistics, psychologists, sociologist and policy makers. vernacular-medium. marker and symbol of polarisation of a society. Guidelines for Linguistics Projects Dr. Tina L. Ha... Culture and Imperialism........Francis Bacon. As a result, they were being well versed in the English language. planning by the policy makers both at the state level and the federal levels, the English language has emerged as the favored language in education. has such low esteem that there has been a huge expansion in private education, bureaucrats and politicians who speak up for Urdu in public but make sure in Powell 242) describes the ‘double-speak’ of Pakistani elites who would utilise The origin of Urdu goes back several centuries, and according to some historians, Urdu has evolved from an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the area around Delhi which absorbed words fr… private that their children learn English (even General Zia, according to Tradition and Individual Talent : A Critical Summary, Tradition and Individual Talent by T. S. Eliot, Charles Dickens Themes, Motifs & Symbols. It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. English is taught to all school level Pakistani students, and in many cases English is also the language used to teach the students other subjects. riots” in January 1971 and July 1972 (Ahmed, 1992; as cited by Rahman, 2004: It then relates to the formation and implementation of a (certain steps) sound language policy to root out the conflicts and ethnic clashes from time to time in the country, and to survive the language shock of majority of students in Pakistan… Rahman (1999) describes the policy of language Saraiki, which is spoken around the southern Panjab region. These varieties included Sindhi, which had played a significant A study intended to explore the significance of language policy awareness in English Language Teaching (ELT) was conducted in Mardan, Pakistan, 45 trainee teachers and 25 in-service teachers of ELT of two postgraduate departments, participated. government which supported more English. "To be or not to be that is the question". languages below these. construction of pro-Western secular identities; its snob value makes it a class (1977-88), the National Education Policy of 1979 phased out English-medium instruction everywhere, only to be replaced entirely by Urdu-medium or English for their own benefit while promoting Urdu for the nation; and Hence, the socioeconomic hierarchy of sent out mixed messages.”. Kashmir, was decreed a compulsory subject in all government schools. Rahman (1998; as cited by anecdote). The diglossic situation in Pakistan bureaucracies were English-educated and in favour of social modernisation, they planning in Pakistan as one which used Urdu to contain regionalism and English The poem "A Valediction: Forbidding mourning" is a typical metaphysical poem. Planning in Pakistan. (Weinstein, 1983; as cited by Powell, 2002: 241). Underlying British ELT has been key tenets--monolingualism, the native speaker as the ideal teacher, the earlier the better etc.--which [are] fundamentally false. Courts conduct their business in English. GLOBALIZATION AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: IMPACT ON ... Twenty-Five Quick Tips for Classroom Teachers. Due to independence the Bengalis seemed to support Urdu as a symbol vernacular. Rahman (1998; as cited by construction of pro-Western secular identities; its snob value makes it a class It argued that it would be inappropriate to look at English in a vacuum and that the broader linguistic context of Pakistan, particularly in the field of education, should also be considered. 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