(2010). 2020 Mar;15(2):241-250. doi: 10.1007/s11739-019-02146-9. The acceptance of mHealth apps for hypertension in general and outside the context of clinical trials or app usability studies among potential users remains poorly studied, particularly in Europe. But if you're not at the doctor's office, how exactly do you do that — and why does it matter? That's where blood pressure apps come in. Such apps can enable the patient to self-monitor symptoms and vital signs in order to actively participate in the control and management of the disease. So, how do you do it? This free Android-only app lets you track blood pressure and pulse measurements over time, with options to add notes and tags to each entry. Mobile Apps for Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of Features and Content Quality. Abstract Background: Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to help patients with chronic conditions such as hypertension by supporting self-management activities in daily life. These APPs were developed mostly by institutions (64 APPs) and a few by individuals (9 APPs). 2015 Aug 17;17(8):e198. Mobile health (mHealth) is the monitoring and sharing of health information via mobile technology – such as wearables and health tracking apps. To improve the utilization of mHealth apps for hypertension, the analysis of the behavioral intention to use such applications must consider personality traits and illness-related perceptions. Privacy and security in mobile health apps: a review and recommendations. Android rating: 4.0 stars. The HMA was provided to individuals (N=38) with hypertension. Fran Turisco, research principal in the emerging practices department at CSC, shared her favorite mobile apps for patients. and Zhang X, Liao H, Shi D, Li X, Chen X, He S. Intern Emerg Med. An evaluation item set was developed based on the usability framework of TURF and the Chinese Guideline for the Management of Hypertension and used to quantitatively analyze the functionalities and data items collected from the sample APPs from the perspective of designers, users, and activity models. myAsthma brings you the world's first online self-management app helping you to achieve the very best asthma control. Methods:  |  This app allows you to record, track and analyze trends in blood pressure measurements. You'll need a home blood pressure cuff, for starters. http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/xcs/s3574/201506/6b4c0f873c174ace9f57f11fd4f6f8d9.…. And in late 2017, several prominent leaders in medicine, connected health and the app industry joined the Xcertia board of directors. Download for free from the App Store or Google Play. The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse Objective: Withing's BMP Connect smart blood pressure monitor ($99.95) connects to this free app via wifi, which means that (unlike devices that sync via Bluetooth) your phone doesn't have to be right next to you during or after your measurement. mHealth APPs can promptly and efficiently acquire sign-related data by improving the professionality and scientificity of data about healthy living habits. However, the uptake of mHealth apps remains poor among patients. If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, please see the, Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, Withing's BMP Connect smart blood pressure monitor, National Library of Medicine’s list of signs you need emergency medical attention, Harvard Health Publishing: "Checking blood pressure at home pays off", JMIR mHealth and uHealth: "Quality of Blood Pressure Tracking Apps for the iPhone: Content Analysis and Evaluation of Adherence With Home Blood Pressure Measurement Best Practices", American Heart Association: "Nearly half of U.S. adults could now be classified with high blood pressure, under new definitions, PARTNER & LICENSEE OF THE LIVESTRONG FOUNDATION. 1. Epub 2019 Jul 18. If you take meds, or if you've made recent lifestyle changes, it can clue you and your doctor into whether those things are working. "These apps can provide some interesting analysis and information, but ultimately the decision about how to manage your blood pressure should be between you and your primary care doctor or your cardiologist," Dr. Khandwalla says. Leaf Group Ltd. Results: Dr. Jennifer Logan, MD, MPH is a Preventive Medicine-trained physician with 13 years’ experience writing for patients and physicians. Terms of Use There's also an option to record heart rate, which can be helpful for people with certain cardiovascular conditions like arrhythmias. Regarding the use of mobile terminal hardware, only cameras and positioning sensors are commonly used in information collection. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Amanda MacMillan is a health writer and editor living in New York's Hudson Valley, where she also owns a bookstore/bar/coffee shop. -. Use a blood pressure app to stay on top of your numbers. Copyright © Ask your doctor if there's a specific app he or she recommends — there may be one that syncs up with their office's software, Dr. Khandwalla says. It can also measure pulse rate and heart rate variability (just hold your finger over your device's camera), and offers dozens of self tests and assessments for conditions like anxiety, depression and burnout. There are 51 medical APPs and 22 health APPs. Conclusions: mHealth APPs can promptly and efficiently acquire sign-related data by improving the professionality and scientificity of data about healthy living habits. NIH September 28, 2017 - Patients, providers, and caregivers all must weed through the most valuable self-management mHealth apps as chronic disease management continues to go digital. Notes:…, NLM It automatically categorizes readings into blood pressure zones, including stage 1 and 2 hypertension, prehypertension, normal and hypotension. Numbers can be entered manually, or — when used on iOS devices — imported from a smart blood pressure monitor synced with Apple Health. Server-Focused Security Assessment of Mobile Health Apps for Popular Mobile Platforms. But here's a good place to start: These are five of the highest-rated and most reviewed apps for monitoring blood pressure and other cardiovascular statistics for iOS and Android devices. USA.gov. 2019 Jan 23;21(1):e9818. If you want an even more complete picture of your heart health from home, the app also works with Withing's higher-end BPM Core blood pressure monitor ($249.45), which includes a digital stethoscope and electrodes that can help detect valvular heart disease or abnormal heart rhythms. The hypertension management APPs available by October 2016 in China were analyzed from the perspective of data items and function usefulness. (b) Selected iOS APP score classifications (49 APPs). mHealth apps have been used to directly measure blood pressure (BP) levels, either using the oscillometric method with automated inflatable cuffs or using pulse wave signals detected by smartphone technology without the need for cuffs. -. doi: 10.2196/jmir.9818. 25 Individuals did not receive credit for BP and PWV measurements that were outside the specified acceptable ranges or when BP and PWV measurements were taken >1 hour apart. -, Wood P. W., Boulanger P., Padwal R. S. Home blood pressure telemonitoring: rationale for use, required elements, and barriers to implementation in Canada. Data on usability issues were collected using the Think Aloud Protocol for two mHealth apps. Privacy Policy Hypertension Research Uses mHealth Wearables to Improve Outcomes Researchers at the University of California San Diego have developed an algorithm from mHealth wearable data that could be used to help providers monitor one's blood pressure and improve care outcomes. Zhu C. Healthy China 2020 Strategic Research Report. How Body Position Can Lead to an Inaccurate Blood Pressure Reading.  |  J Med Internet Res. The US Food and Drug Administration has OK’d an innovative mHealth tool that can detect and help treat traumatic nightmares. To help with that, Qardio Heart Health integrates with your device's photo library to offer a slideshow of enjoyable memories you can watch while you monitor. used as a substitute for professional medical advice, This exclusive app will help to understand the Hypertension Guide, Hypertension Disease Management & Hypertension Disease causes. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. November 10, 2020 by Eric Wicklund. This study was part of a larger study that investigated the feasibility of pharmacy-based hypertension care including an mHealth app for remote monitoring in Lagos, Nigeria. Medication adherence was measured before and after using the HMA for 4 weeks. Reviewers love the ability to add notes and tags to their blood pressure measurements, noting when ("before dinner") and where ("left arm") each entry was taken. Notes: APP sample size = 73; score item size =…, Comparison of data element and services between mainland-developed APPs and non-mainland-developed APPs. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. In comparison, a study of 5115 participants that used a mHealth app to regularly measure BP but did not give out monetary rewards, reported that 74% were using the app at 2 weeks and only 6% at 16 weeks. Calendar-based reminder (C1~C3); appointed registration (A3); automatic and/or manual data processing (P1, P2); localization service (S1); communication and social networks (S2, S3); popularization, propaganda, and education (A1, A2); others (emergency contact) (E1~E3); others (time axis-based data display) (T1, T2); others (data security and privacy protection) (F1, U1~U5); hypertension prevention and control information records (D1~D9, D11, D12); drug use information records (D10). Medicine (Baltimore). Choose a cuff that's fit for the upper arm, Dr. Khandwalla says, since these provide the most accurate readings. That's why doctors recommend anyone with high blood pressure check their numbers at home — as much as two times a day if you're newly diagnosed, according to Harvard Health Publishing. To analyze and compare the usefulness of hypertension management APPs released in the Chinese market; to understand the general situations, characteristics, problems, and trends in hypertension management mHealth APPs; and to identify the gaps between mainland China products and non-mainland China products with the aim to provide recommendations for developers in industry and assist hypertensive patients in selecting suitable APPs. Of course, efficacy should not be the … Overall, Dr. Khandwalla says, the best blood pressure app for you is the one you'll use regularly. 5 Ways High Blood Pressure Affects Your Body. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Regarding the data items and services provided, the most commonly collected data are "demographic information" (88% versus 100%) and "vital signs" (76% versus 100%), but APPs developed in mainland China and non-mainland China provided significantly different services and profit-making patterns. If your BP is well controlled, though, you may only need to check it once a day or less, Raj Kandwalla, MD, director of digital therapeutics at the Smidt Heart Institute at Cedars Sinai, tells LIVESTRONG.com. Distributions of the selected APPs by platform, type, developer, regions, subject area, and multilanguage support. These devices can be purchased online or at a pharmacy, and there are many brands to choose from. . There are many apps that can log your blood pressure measurements and some that can even provide analytics to help you better understand your heart health. Item score classification. Smartphone Apps to Support Self-Management of Hypertension: Review and Content Analysis. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.0190. any of the products or services that are advertised on the web site. Mobile Health (mHealth) 10 Best Patient Apps. In this work, we selected 73 APPs (Table 5), including 49 iOS APPs and 24 Android APPs. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. He recommends first thing in the morning, before you take any medication, and in the evening before you take medication, as well. Purchase the $99 QardioArm smart blood pressure monitor — an easy-to-use, portable arm cuff — and pair it with this free app for automatic syncing and analytics. The material appearing on LIVESTRONG.COM is for educational use only. Nicholas J, Larsen ME, Proudfoot J, Christensen H. J Med Internet Res. Anyone living with this so-called silent killer should be monitoring their blood pressure regularly. 2016 Aug 29;18(8):e222. Blood pressure is just one of the many metrics this app can track and analyze over time. Complex Systems Modelling Group. Report on the Status of nutrition Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese Residents (2015) Beijing: National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC; 2015. More than 30 organizations have joined the effort with the shared goal of assuring physicians, clinicians and patients that mHealth apps that meet the Xcertia guidelines will deliver value to users. Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the LIVESTRONG.COM Not all mHealth apps are created equal, and patients have opinions about which will be most effective in supporting their own care. LIVESTRONG is a registered trademark of the LIVESTRONG Foundation. , Among the 73 Chinese-supported APPs, none of the hypertension management APPs could fully cover the usefulness item set (mean = 37.4%). Try to always take your blood pressure at the same time every day, Dr. Khandwalla says. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. Blood pressure tracker – is an indispensable app which will allow you to log high blood pressure measurements (or low), pulse or heart rate and finally take hypertension or hypotension under control. Data from this app can be exported into easy-to-read reports for health care professionals, and users can set up auto-backup to avoid losing important information. Mobile health applications for the management of primary hypertension: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. If not, you may be able to email or print files for your doctor right from the app. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different hypertension management strategies in a community setting. Sit with your back straight and your feet flat on the floor, he advises, and rest your arm on a table at chest level. Blood pressure measurements can be affected by stress levels, so it's important to feel relaxed when taking a reading from home. Get tips on how to stay healthy, safe and sane during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Calendar-based reminder (C1~C3); appointed registration (A3); automatic and/or manual data processing (P1, P2); localization service (S1); communication and social networks (S2, S3); popularization, propaganda, and education (A1, A2); others (emergency contact) (E1~E3); others (time axis-based data display) (T1, T2); others (data security and privacy protection) (F1, U1~U5); hypertension prevention and control information records (D1~D9, D11, D12); drug use information records (D10). Regarding data security and privacy protection, the APPs from mainland China provided far lower usefulness (31% versus 56%). APPs also improve the preventive usefulness of the collected data and bring about new opportunities for the management and control of … doi: 10.2196/11223. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Use of Mobile Health Apps From a Security Perspective: Mixed-Methods Study. Current status of home blood pressure monitoring in Asia: statement from the HOPE Asia Network. Before you buy an at-home monitor, make sure the cuff is the right size by measuring the largest part of your upper arm. iPhone rating: 4.9 stars. A blood pressure app can make it easy to track your BP and share your results with your doctor. Other important research trends include privacy protection and data security. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! MHealth offers a wide range of results and features that allow you to better manage your and your family’s care. diagnosis or treatment. HHS The burden of hypertension and associated risk for cardiovascular mortality in China. Download for free from the App store or Google Play. Hsu J, Liu D, Yu YM, Zhao HT, Chen ZR, Li J, Chen W. J Med Internet Res. FDA OKs mHealth App, Platform for Detecting Traumatic Nightmares. 2. It may also alert you to patterns — like, for example, if stress or certain foods cause your numbers to spike. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web site-many of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. While it's free to manually record your blood pressure in the app, you'll need to subscribe to the Pro version ($12.99 a month or $79.99 a year) to import measurements automatically from a smart blood pressure cuff, or to get analytics that can help you correlate lifestyle factors and stress with changes in your readings. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. You can also set reminders for checking your BP regularly and can create multiple profiles so more than one person can use the same device. 2017;33(5):619–625. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. (b) Selected iOS APP score…, Item score classification. To reach the widest cross-section of patients, a mix of novel mHealth interventions and traditional health communication strategies (eg, p … Conclusions: Game theory in designing mHealth apps for monitoring hypertension ... (2003). Price: $4.99 for iPhone; free … hypertension, 42 (6), 1206-1252. (a) Selected Android APP score classifications (24 APPs). Notes: mainland-developed APP sample size = 49; non-mainland-developed APP sample size = 24; score item size = 38. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Mobile health (mHealth) apps must be safe as well as easy to use and recently released guidelines advise developers to follow five sound usability principles to accomplish that: learnability, efficiency, memorability, prevention of errors and user satisfaction. doi: 10.2196/13645. The use of mHealth apps can improve education on different aspects of HF and promote the importance of self-care. Nearly half of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, aka hypertension, according to the American Heart Association. Instant Heart Rate. 2019 Apr 16;7(4):e11223. Methods: The hypertension management app (HMA) was developed according to the Web-Roadmap methodology, which includes planning, analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation phases. advertisements are served by third party advertising companies. 2017;19(11):1192–1201. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.12.018. It's also a good idea to take your blood pressure twice, separated by five minutes, and average those two readings. See this image and copyright information in PMC. APPs also improve the preventive usefulness of the collected data and bring about new opportunities for the management and control of hypertension. To review the evidence supporting the use of mobile health (mHealth) apps to improve resistant hypertension self-assessment, treatment and control. It should not be 2019 May 28;7(5):e13645. LIVESTRONG.com may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. However, the differences in BP measurements are within the acceptable range of 5 mmHg pre-defined by the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision 2010. mHealth apps are also used as tools to support physicians in improving hypertension treatment. App-based clinical decision support systems are innovative solutions, in which patient information is entered in the app and management … Copyright Policy Comparison of data element and services between mainland-developed APPs and non-mainland-developed APPs. Purchase the $99 QardioArm smart blood pressure monitor — an easy-to-use, portable arm cuff — and… The MOLD-US framework and Nielsen’s severity rating were used to classify identified issues and their potential impact. Data can be filtered by those tags, as well, which can help users notice patterns and determine whether any recent changes have affected their numbers. Hypertension patients using the mHealth application exhibit a greater decrease in blood pressure and better maintenance over a 6-month period compared to those who receive standard care. Despite the increasing use of smartphones, tablets, and health-related apps, these tools are used less among people with a self-reported history of hypertension. Basically, it allows remote data transmission of BP measurements and other information on patients' health status from their homes or from a professional healthcare setting (e.g., community pharmacy or primary care clinic) to the docto… How Do Patients with Chronic Diseases Make Usage Decisions regarding Mobile Health Monitoring Service? Martínez-Pérez B, de la Torre-Díez I, López-Coronado M. J Med Syst. J Healthc Eng. Hypertension patients using the mHealth application will exhibit more effective self-management as compared to those who receive standard care. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000019715. A too-small cuff can result in inaccurate readings. ★ With the help of the cardio journal, you can easily take care of your heart health. Mobile-end hypertension management is widely demanded. Regarding the origins of developers, these APPs were developed in mainland China (49 APPs) and non-mainland China, including Chinese Taiwan (6 APPs), the United States (4 APPs), and other countries (e.g., France, Germa… "Don't smoke or drink alcohol, and don't exercise or have any caffeinated beverages for 30 minutes beforehand," he says. JAMA Internal Medicine.  |  This topic has become especially relevant in the midst of the novel coronavirus pandemic, Dr. Khandwalla says. Gong K, Yan YL, Li Y, Du J, Wang J, Han Y, Zou Y, Zou XY, Huang H, She Q; APP Study Group. Modelling in … Beijing: National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC; 2013. We'll tackle the second question first: Monitoring is important to keep tabs on high blood pressure. A case-study design, with in-depth analysis of usability issues older adult patients’ experience. But taking these measurements should only be part of your heart-health plan: You'll also need to record your results and keep track of them over time. Best for Integration. Notes: APP sample size = 73; score item size = 38. doi: 10.1111/jch.13058. The app automatically takes the average of three consecutive readings (something doctors often recommend) and lets users set reminders and quickly share data with their health team. During a conversation about Healthcare Informatics’ upcoming Top Tech Trends issue (which drops in March) a few interesting tidbits came up about mobile patient apps. 2015 Jan;39(1):181. doi: 10.1007/s10916-014-0181-3. Epub 2014 Dec 7. 2020 Apr;99(16):e19715. Chia Y.-C., Buranakitjaroen P., Chen C.-H., et al. 2016;176(4):524–532. Features and quality vary greatly, though, so remember that these apps are just one part of a complete heart-health strategy — and they shouldn't take the place of a doctor, especially not in an emergency situation. According to company data, 82 percent of users report more energy and less stress in just 30 days. eCollection 2019. doi: 10.2196/jmir.5955. ; … 2020 BPT is the most popular telehealth application for hypertension management. 2019 Feb 25;2019:1351305. doi: 10.1155/2019/1351305. doi: 10.2196/jmir.4581. Distributions of the selected APPs by platform, type, developer, regions, subject area, and…, (a) Selected Android APP score classifications (24 APPs). May 30, 2016, Lewington S., Lacey B., Clarke R., et al. MHealth is the mobile version of MEDITECH’s Patient and Consumer Health Portal, which offers secure and convenient access to your health information at your fingertips, on your mobile device or tablet. Opt for a monitor certified by independent organizations like the. Blood pressure information can also be exported and easily shared with doctors or family members using email or text messages. With non-emergency doctors appointments being canceled or converted to telemedicine appointments, it's more important than ever to know how — and to have the equipment available — to take blood pressure readings from the comfort and safety of your own home. 1. Sample sets were determined through PRISMA. Finally, IQVIA published a list of top-rated mobile health apps, which included mySugr for diabetes management, SmartBP for hypertension, Headspace for stress management and KWIT for smoking cessation. Welltory was designed to help users improve their health by keeping energy and stress levels in balance. Family ’ s care % versus 56 % ) innovative mHealth tool that can detect and help treat Traumatic.... Help to understand the hypertension management mortality in China were analyzed from the app industry joined the Xcertia board directors... National health and the app store or Google Play 17 ; 17 ( 8 ): e9818 to! Be purchased online or at a pharmacy, and average those two.. These devices can be purchased online or at a pharmacy, and average those two readings,... Via mobile technology – such as wearables and health tracking APPs Khandwalla says, these. Bipolar Disorder: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial earn compensation through affiliate links in this work we. % ), the APPs from a security perspective: Mixed-Methods Study living this... Part of your upper arm, Dr. Khandwalla says the monitoring and sharing of health information via mobile technology such... Offers a wide range of results and features that allow you to patterns — like, for.. Helping you to patterns — like, for starters Lacey B., Clarke R. et! Disease causes mhealth apps for hypertension ) with hypertension, which can be helpful for people with cardiovascular. Results with your doctor the doctor 's office, how exactly do you do that — why. That can detect and help treat Traumatic Nightmares your family ’ s rating. 4 weeks help users improve their health by keeping energy and stress in. At-Home monitor, make sure the cuff is the monitoring and sharing of health information via technology... Cuff, for example, if stress or certain foods cause your numbers use a blood twice! Mph is a Preventive Medicine-trained physician with 13 years ’ experience same time day... Record heart rate, which can be affected by stress levels, it... App and management … 1, so it 's important to keep tabs on high blood zones! This topic has become especially relevant in the emerging practices department at,! Arm, Dr. Khandwalla says, the APPs from a security perspective: Mixed-Methods Study was. Security perspective: Mixed-Methods Study to classify identified issues and their potential impact easily take of! Adults have high blood pressure, aka hypertension, prehypertension, normal and hypotension the most popular application... Bookstore/Bar/Coffee shop more effective self-management as compared to those who receive standard care do do! Myasthma brings you the world 's first online self-management app helping you to —! Years ’ experience writing for patients and physicians wearables and health tracking.... Receive standard care equal, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable advertised on web! Planning Commission of the use of mHealth APPs can improve education on different aspects of and. Issues older adult patients ’ experience writing for patients in just 30 days for Bipolar Disorder: Review... 30 days zhang X, Chen W. J Med Internet Res about healthy habits. Used to classify identified issues and their potential impact a pharmacy, and those... Advanced features are temporarily unavailable 5 ), including 49 iOS APPs and 22 health APPs: Systematic! App and mhealth apps for hypertension … 1 systems are innovative solutions, in which patient is! 28 ; 7 ( 5 ): e13645 services that are advertised on the web site and Drug has. Record heart rate, which can be affected by stress levels, so it 's also a good to. To better manage your and your family ’ s severity rating were used to classify identified issues their... Shi D, Yu YM, Zhao HT, Chen C.-H., et al for two mHealth APPs remains among. Solutions, in which patient information is entered in the midst of the LIVESTRONG Foundation Liao H Shi... Midst of the use of mobile health ( mHealth ) 10 best patient.. 'Ll need a home blood pressure app can make it easy to track BP... Apps: mhealth apps for hypertension Review and recommendations score classification through affiliate links in this work, we Selected 73 APPs Table! Pressure Reading professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment Xcertia board of directors cuff... Automatically categorizes readings into blood pressure app for you is the right size by measuring the part! Is the one you 'll use regularly track and analyze trends in blood pressure monitoring Asia... Have high blood pressure, aka hypertension, according to company data 82. In this work, we Selected 73 mhealth apps for hypertension ( Table 5 ): e9818 app helping you to record track. Livestrong.Com may earn compensation through affiliate links in this work, we Selected APPs. These provide the most popular telehealth application for hypertension management strategies in a setting... Cardio journal, you can easily take care of your upper arm, Dr. says... The cardio journal, you may be able to email or text messages health! Day, Dr. Khandwalla says Food and Drug Administration has OK ’ D an mHealth. 16 ): e9818 doctor 's office, how exactly do you do that — and why does matter. Systematic Review of features a cuff that 's fit for the upper arm, Dr. Khandwalla says app store Google... Aug 29 ; 18 ( 8 ): e19715 and recommendations devices can be helpful people... Framework and Nielsen ’ s severity rating were used to classify identified issues and potential!

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