2) Station Marking. Ease, accuracy, and worldwide availability have made ‘GPS’ a household term. UNIT – II: DISTANCES AND DIRECTION: Distance measurement conventions and methods; use of chain and tape, Electronic distance measurements, Meridians, Azimuths and Bearings, declination, computation of angle. May 2005 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT, MEASUREMENTS AND ERRORS 3.1(1) Chapter 3 Surveying Equipment, Measurements and Errors 3.1 EQUIPMENT The procurement and maintenance of surveying equipment, tools and supplies are important parts of the Department’s survey effort. The line joining KG determines the direction of the chain line past the obstacle, and the obstructed length BK = AG-AB-GK = DA – AB – GK. • Clear paths of travel, are needed between the end points of the distance. Surveying Primary divisions of surveying: 1. What are the different sources of errors in chain surveying? In surveying, tape correction(s) refer(s) to correcting measurements for the effect of slope angle, expansion or contraction due to temperature, and the tape's sag, which varies with the applied tension. Not correcting for these effects gives rise to systematic errors, i.e. What are the stages of fieldwork in chain surveying? Under the same measurement conditions, these errors will have the same magnitude and direction (positive or negative). The ends of the chain are provided with brass handles for easy handling. chaining, Ranging, Chaining on uneven slopping ground, Errors in Chaining, Corrections. When any surveying such as land survey, topographical survey, building survey, structural survey, boundary survey, property survey etc. This is most suitable adapted to small plane areas with very few details. • Factors Which Influence the Use of Chains • Measured distances are limited to the length of the chain, usually 50 or 100 meters. 10/5/01 6. If carefully done, it gives quite accurate results. Forgetting once chain length; Making mistakes in using a calculator; Accidental Errors: Surveying errors can occur due to unavoidable circumstances like variations in atmospheric conditions which are entirely beyond the control of the observer. Quick Check 3.9 Problem: Suppose you measure three numbers as follows: x = 200§2; y = 50§2; z = 40§2; where the three uncertainties are independent and random. In this survey only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. instrumental errors. Examples of such obstructions are ponds, lakes, marshy land etc. The common station marking are wood peg and nails. o A B HORIZONTAL ANGLE AOB 30. Reconnaissance: It is the preliminary inspection of the area to be surveyed. 30838893 chain-survey 1. The idea of working this way is to prevent the accumulation of errors and to control and localize minor errors which, otherwise, would expand to greater magnitudes if the reverse process is followed, thus making the work uncontrolled at the end. The station can be mark when the station criteria had been full fill. WHITE PAPER | PHARMA BIOTECH The nurse was fired due to gross negligence, but the systems were not re-evaluated. Setting out a chain line as part of a chain and offset survey to carry out, for example, detail mapping. Each link is a steel rod bent into a tight loop on each end and connected to the next link with a small steel ring. INTRODUCTION: Overview of plane surveying (chain, compass and plane table), Objectives, Principles, and classifications. Reply. Plane Surveying 2. Introduction to Astronomy; Azimuth - its determination; Field Method of Hour Angle (Based on Sun observation) Control Survey . 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